INSIGHTS > New Articles > IAS > How To Prepare UPSC Civil Services Mains Paper-II (GS-1) > Old NCERT World History Class-X. Download OLD NCERT e-Books (FREE PDF). Contemporary World History " Class - XII". Subject: History. Topic: Contemporary World History. Class: XII. (Download) Old NCERT PDF: The Story of Civilization Part-I (Arjun Dev); NEW! World History "Class XII" (Part - 2) · World History "Class XII" (Part - 3).
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Kindly send me the all the books of Old NCERT pdf of History. Reply. Ankita Mishra says Sir plz all old ncert books Telugu medium class send me. Reply. Download Free, Old NCERT books for class 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 PDF. Class 11 – Ancient Indian History by R.S Sharma, PDF Download. Syllabus of World History for UPSC Mains exam includes: events from 18th century- (Industrial revolution, WWs, redrawn boundaries, colonisation.
The governments were also forced to pass laws against some of the worse features of capitalism. For example Laws to protect workers from unsafe conditions of work were passed in many countries.
Some progress was also made in regulating hours of work. Some workers had begun to think that machines were the cause of their misery. In England, there was a movement to machines led the Luddites so named after their leader Ned Ludd. However, they soon realized that the destruction of machines would not put an end to their misery. In England, a new political movement started which aimed at winning political rights for workers.
This was the Chartist movement about which you have read before. The idea grew that capitalism itself is evil and that it needs to be replaced by a different kind and economic system in which the means a production would be owned by the society as a whole and not by a few individuals.
Many philosophers and reformers in the past had expressed their revulsion against inequalities in society and in favour of a system in which everyone would be equal.
However these ideas had remained as mere dreams. The French Revolution a with its promise of equality had given a new impetus to these ideas. But the French Revolution, while it put an end to the autocratic rule of the French king, it did not did not usher in an era of equality in economic, social and political life. The-wide gap between the aims of the French Revolution and the actual conditions in France after the revolution created serious discontent among the people.
It led to an attempt to overthrow the existing government in France with a view to building a society based on socialist ideas. This attempt, known as Babeufs Conspiracy, is an An important event in the history of socialism. Babeuf Conspiracy The Conspiracy, as the name indicates, was the work of Babeuf.
He was born in and had participated in the French Revolution. He organized a secret society called the Society of the Equals.
The time has come to set up the republic of equals, whose welcoming doors will be open to all mankind. Babeuf was executed in Utopian Socialists There was another group of socialists in the early history of socialism which included 1.
Saint-Simon 2. Charles Fourier 3. Robert Owen They viewed property in relation to its usefulness to society. They recognized the evils of capitalism and proposed the establishment of a new and better system of society in its place.
However, the methods they advocated for the establishment of such a society were impracticable and ineffective. Hence they came to be called utopian socialists.
Blanqui There were many other philosophers and revolutionaries who helped in spreading ideas of socialism.
He believed that through a revolutionary conspiracy, power could be captured to bring about socialism. When he died. Communist League Many groups and organisations were also formed to spread socialist ideas and organise workers. One of these was the League of the Just which had members in many countries of Europe.
Thus internationalism was one of its important features. The influence of this document in the history of the socialist movement is without a rival. Both Marx and Engels were born in Germany, but spent much of their life outside Germany, mostly in England. Through their work in the socialist movement and through their numerous writings, they gave a new direction to socialist ideology and movement.
Their philosophy is known as Marxism and it has influenced almost every field of knowledge. Their view of socialism is called scientific socialism.
The Communist Manifesto stated that the aim of workers all over the world was the overthrow of capitalism and the establishment of socialism. It pointed out that socialism was not merely desirable, but also inevitable. Capitalism, it said, does not serve the needs of man and, like other social and economic systems in history, it would be replaced by a system, better suited to human needs. Marx analysed the working of capitalism in his famous work Das Kapital Capital and pointed out the characteristics that would lead to its destruction.
This constitutes the basis of conflict in capitalist society. Economic crises were inevitable under capitalism because of the discrepancy between the downloading power of workers and total production. These crises would be resolved only if the private ownership of the means of production is abolished and the profit motive eliminated from the system of production.
With this, production would be carried on for social good rather than for profits for a few 4. The exploiting classes would disappear and a classless society would emerge in which there would be no difference between what was good for the individual and for society as a whole. Marx and Engels believed that this would be accomplished by the working class which was the most revolutionary class in capitalist society.
They advocated that the emancipation of the working class would emancipate the whole human race from all traces of social injustice. Around the time the Communist Manifesto was published, revolutions broke out in almost every country in Europe.
You have read about these revolutions of before. These revolts aimed at the overthrow of autocratic governments, establishment of democracy and also, in countries such as Italy and Germany, at national unification.
One of the major forces in these revolutions were the workers who had been inspired by ideas of socialism. The Communist League participated in these revolutions in many countries. However, all these revolutions were suppressed. After revolution With the failure of the revolutions, the socialist movement seems to have abated.
However, it was soon to rise in strength again. One of the outstanding features of the various socialist groups was their internationalist character.
You have read about the Communist League before. In Britain, an organisation called the Society of Fraternal Democrats had been formed in It had close links with other similar organizations in Europe and with the Chartists in Britain.
All these organisations emphasized the idea that the cause of the working class in all countries was the same. In all countries there are people who grow corn and eat potatoes, who make clothes and wear rags, who build houses and live in wretched hovels.
Do not the workers of all nations have the same reason for complaint and the same causes of distress? Have they not, therefore, the same just cause? The meeting at which it was formed took place in London and was attended by delegates from Britain, France, Italy, Germany, Poland and Switzerland. The emancipation of the working classes, it was declared, must be won by the working classes themselves.
The universal character of the struggle of the working class was emphasized. It was persecuted and declared illegal in many countries. You have read about this war earlier in the context of the unification of Germany. The war was condemned both by the German and French workers as a crime committed by the French and Prussian dynasties.
The French and German branches of the International sent messages of good wishes and solidarity to each other.
The German workers protested against this and there were many demonstrations in various cities of Germany. All the leaders of German workers were arrested on charges of treason. This is one of the most important events in the history of socialism. Within a few weeks of the war the French army had been defeated and the French emperor Louis Bonaparte had been taken prisoner.
A new government had come into being and had declared France a republic. The workers of Paris regarded the surrender by the government as treacherous. They refused to surrender. The government withdrew from Paris on 18 February and asked for German help to crush Paris. The workers of Paris elected a council which on 28 March assumed the title of the Paris Commune.
It was elected by universal adult franchise and represented the workers and the lower middle classes of Paris. All public offices were elected by universal suffrage with people having the right to recall. It was soon drowned in blood. The French government which had established its headquarters in Versailles attacked Paris with a huge army. In this they received the help of Germany also. The attacks on Paris had begun in April.
On 21 May the troops entered Paris. The battle continued in the city of Paris up to 28 May when the Commune was finally exterminated. The government which had surrendered to the German invaders, however, turned on the workers of Paris with unusual ferocity. It is estimated that between 14, to 30, defenders of the Commune were slaughtered in the streets of Paris or killed by firing squads. Union Budget: Economic Survey: If any problem feel free to Whatsapp on Thanks for visiting. Notes Clues. Please upload all study material in hindi medium also.
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