Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , P.S.M. Botelho and others published Cotesia flavipes para o controle de Diatraea saccharalis. Cotesia flavipes (CAM) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Supresses Immune Responses In Diatraea flavipennella (BOX) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). ELIANA M . DOS. The management of infested areas is based on the release of Cotesia flavipes ( Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of D. saccharalis larvae, but .
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Although the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) has proven effective in controlling sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) for. Such a process has recently been documented within the Cotesia flavipes species complex, all of which are larval parasitoids of moth species whose larvae are. Cotesia flavipes Fam: Braconidae, Order: Hymenoptera Brachymeria nephantidis Fam: Chalcididae, Order: Hymenoptera Trichogramma.
Fully developed larvae egress from the host body and spin their cocoons to undergo metamorphosis. Host resistance processes can manifest at all these steps of the life cycle, among which encapsulation of the parasitoid eggs has been often reported and well described Beckage Evolution of virulence mechanisms by the parasitoid may have driven the radiation of species within the genus Cotesia Herniou et al. The Cotesia flavipes species-group is a monophyletic complex made up of until now four allopatric sister species, all gregarious endoparasitoids of a few families of lepidopteran stem borers Crambidae, Pyralidae, and Noctuidae in monocot Poales Poaceae, Typhaceae and Cyperaceae.
The species-group comprises Cotesia chilonis Munakata, from eastern Asia, including China, Japan and Indonesia; Cotesia flavipes Cameron, , from the Indian sub-continent, but also released and established in east Africa and the New World for the purpose of biological control; Cotesia nonagriae Olliff, , an Australian endemic recently removed from synonymy with C.
Members of this species complex are economically important worldwide as biocontrol agents of cereals and sugarcane stem borer pests Kfir et al. Additional, cryptic species have been suspected within this complex and several papers have explored this possibility, especially in regard to C. In the latter species, studies made from samples collected in maize fields on a few pest species showed that local adaptation to host resources and environmental factors were major drivers of intra-species genetic diversity Dupas et al.
Subsequently, Branca et al. They provided evidence that variations of host range were associated with sequence variation of a virulence gene, CrV1, which could be used as a marker of host races. Analysis of microsatellite markers revealed gene flow between the host races, except for one population specialized on the noctuid Sesamia nonagrioides Branca et al.
One method to get an insight into the evolutionary stability of host-parasitoid associations is to characterize phylogenetic relationships between so-called host races. Pholetesor rangini.
Agathis rageshri. Laccagathis bageshri. Calyptus virhini. Wachsmania darbari. Charops patmangiri. Isotima shivrangini.
Formostenus desi. Pest parasitoid index. Species index. According to Ashida and Brey , the pro PO system can still be involved in the production of opsonins, and thereby, the signaling of the presence of a foreign body could be compromised. The most direct way to prevent encapsulation, which is the expected immune response against parasitism, is to destroy, remove, or alter the behavior of hemocytes that mediate encapsulation Strand and Pecch This was observed in this study through the reduction in the total number of hemocytes; similar results have been reported for other insects after parasitism Alleyne and Wiedenmann , Ibrahim and Kim , Mabiala-Moundoungou et al.
Plasmatocytes and granulocytes are hemocytes that most actively participate in encapsulation response Ibrahim and Kim An increase in the number of plasmatocytes and a reduction in the number of spherulocytes was observed in the differential count of hemocytes performed in this study at 3 days of parasitism.
Ling and Yu also found spherulocytes participating in the encapsulation of a foreign body in Maduca sexta Linnaeus. Moreover, according to Sass et al.
Microspheres were injected in caterpillars to ensure the immunosuppressant effect of C. Studies have shown a deficiency in melanization and nodule formation around foreign particles, or even around microorganisms, due to host's immune system impairment in the presence of immunosuppressive factors in parasitoids Er et al.
The melanization and encapsulation of microspheres in D. The compromised immune response in parasitized caterpillars was confirmed through electromicro-graphies showing only one attempt of encapsulation. Granulocytes are the first cells to recognize a foreign body in the process of encapsulation, fixing on it, and releasing their contents to form an adhesive matrix on the target's surface, which induces the deposition of multiple layers of plasmatocytes Beckage Therefore, the success in encapsulation depends on the recognition of the invader and presence of sufficiently large amounts of hemocytes for the formation of the capsule Strand and Pech , Lavine and Strand , Carton et al.
The ineffectiveness in the encapsulation process due to a reduction in the number of circulating hemocytes has been attributed to the occurrence of apoptosis in hemocytes and histolysis in the hematopoietic organ Teramoto and Tanaka , Luo and Pang , Suzuki and Tanaka , Richards and Dani Some hemocytes with apoptotic nucleus were visualized in parasitized caterpillars at 3 days of parasitism.
However, due to the small sample size in this study, we cannot assign the encapsulation failure to apoptosis of hemocytes in D. In this study, the presence of apoptotic cells in the fat body of non-parasitized and parasitized caterpillars was observed at 3 days after parasitism.
However, a differentiation in the structural aspect of the fatty tissue was observed, which, when parasitized, is shown as less developed and with degenerated aspect.
According to Teramoto and Tanaka , morphological changes in the fat body such as severely stunted nucleus, result from parasitism.
Hence, it can be concluded that C. The results of this study contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms involved in host-parasitoid interactions between C. Encapsulation and total hemocyte numbers in three lepidopteran stemborers parasitized by Cotesia flavipes — complex endoparasitoids.
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Ultra-structure of teratocytes in the hemolymph of Diatraea saccharalis Lep. Acta Microsc 4: Teratocytes: developmental and biochemical characteristics.